During flare-ups, people with COPD find their symptoms become much worse and they may need to receive extra treatment at home or be admitted to hospital for emergency care. Severe flare-ups can be life threatening.
Some inhalers open the airways and may be given regularly to prevent or reduce symptoms, and to relieve symptoms during acute flare-ups. Inhaled corticosteroids are sometimes given in combination with these to reduce inflammation in the lungs.
As a fundamental cause of many plasma energy conversion processes, magnetic reconnection (MR) is certainly a high priority of such studies. Masuda et al.21 observed the loop-top X-ray source in solar flares using the YOHKOH satellite and proposed that two antiparallel magnetic fields were merged above an arcade of closed loops as outflow jets from the reconnection point collided with high-density plasmas on the loop to produce a hot X-ray region. Ultraviolet22 and X-ray23,24 observations of plasma jets ejected from the regions above the solar surface were also reported, and further confirm theoretical models of MR. Because of the great similarity of phenomena relating to MR in solar flares and laser-produced plasmas, here, by applying the scaling law of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), we try to reproduce the reconnection outflow/jet and the loop-top X-ray source in the laboratory using a high-power laser facility.
The experiment reported here is the first laboratory simulation of a MR induced loop-top X-ray source and outflow/jet with high-power lasers. MG magnetic fields and high-energy-density plasmas generated by intense laser pulses allow us to study astrophysical MR on a laboratory scale. Such measurements with the controlled parameters of laser-produced plasmas should greatly benefit the understanding of not only explosive energy release and particle acceleration processes such as solar flares, but also many other astrophysical phenomena related to MR.
322756 How to back up and restore the registry in WindowsThe TcpMaxDataRetransmissions registry value controls the number of times that TCP retransmits an individual data segment before it aborts the connection. This value is not configured by default, but it can be entered to change the default number of retries.Change the following subkey in Windows 7, Windows 2008 R2, Windows 2008, Windows 2000, Windows Vista, Windows 2003, and Windows XP:
Description: This parameter controls the initial retransmission time-out used by TCP on each new connection. It applies to the connection request (SYN) and to the first data segment(s) sent on each connection. For example, the value data of "5000 decimal" sets the initial retransmit time to five seconds. The Initial RTO in Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows 7 is can be controlled by using the NetSH command by initialRTO. For prerequisites and more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
Scalp psoriasis causes redness and scaliness, which may also involve the hairline, the forehead, behind the ears and the back of the neck. It can range from very mild with slight fine scaling to very severe, crusted thick scaling covering the entire scalp. Hair loss during the flare-up can occur in some cases, but the hair will normally grow back. Psoriasis can be itchy, make the scalp feel tight and occasionally cause soreness, especially if there are cracks in the skin.
Please remember to vote for the three new HEAD executive committee members. Ballots were sent out via email on 11/27/08 (Thanksgiving Day!) from Ann.Hornschemeier@xraydeep.org. Voting is open until December 30, 2008. As of 11/30/08 (mailing date for the newsletter), approximately 12% of the eligible membership has already voted. Thank you to those of you who voted so promptly! To the rest, please do not delay in sending in your vote!
During this period, the big newsmakers for high-energy astrophysics came from two (different) supernovas and one new telescope. On May 14th, NASA held a phone-in press conference, known as a "media teleconference," to discuss G1.9+0.3. This discovery of the youngest supernova in the Milky Way got widespread coverage including the New York Times, Washington Post, and the national NBC evening news. Just a week later, another NASA media teleconference was held on supernova 2008D, the first supernova astronomers were able to observe as it exploded. Once again, this story was picked up by media across the world in print, broadcast and web-based outlets. Another major story in high-energy astrophysics was, of course, the successful launch and start of science operations for GLAST, now Fermi. After generating news prior to launch, Fermi got much-deserved attention for its new name and first science results that were announced during a NASA media teleconference on August 26th. If any HEAD members are interested in the specific details of this coverage, please contact Megan Watzke.
Chandra successfully completed 9 years of science operations in Julyand the spacecraft and science instruments continue to operatewell. The spacecraft passed through the 2008 summer eclipse season inJune/July with expected power and thermal performance. Chandra didexperience two anomalies during the last 6 months when differentelectronics units reset in August and October, apparently due tosingle event upsets. The spacecraft transitioned to normal sun mode inboth cases and there was no indication of a hardware problem. TheFlight Operations Team recovered the spacecraft to normal operationsrapidly in both cases and only one orbit (2 days) of observations was lost dueto each anomaly.
The latest version of the Science Analysis System (SAS), v. 8.0.0, was released in July 2008; its patch, v. 8.0.1, was released in October. These fix several minor bugs from previous versions, as well as allow the merging of spectra from different RGS instruments, something that no other spectral analysis package does to date. Also, there are now new tasks to extract point sources, and to extract and fit a source's radial profile. (These tasks are experimental, and users are asked to inform the XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre if they find bugs or have suggestions for improvement.)
The Eighth Call for Proposals for XMM-Newton was made on August 26; the final day to submit a proposal was October 10. Results from the first round of reviews are expected in December 2008/January 2009, and successful proposals will enter the Budget Process in early spring 2009. Accepted proposals can be found online at _news/otac_results/index.shtml .
The cycle of AO-6 observations started in August 2008 and continuesas scheduled, with a number of TOO follow-up observations including the reactionto the first flaring Blazar as triggered byGLAST (PKS 1502+106). This TOO notification was implemented by the ScienceOperations and Mission Operations Centres quickly, so that INTEGRAL started toobserve this source only 4 hours after the TOO notification had been received.Other TOO follow-up observations included: Mrk 421, SGR 0501+4516, H1743-322,1E1547.0-5408. In addition about a handful of GRB were localised in the FOV.
The Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI)continues to gather new data on solar flares, cosmic gamma-ray bursts, andterrestrial gamma-ray flashes, with reduced efficiency due to radiation damageof its germanium detectors. Another annealing of the detectors toreduce the effects of this damage is planned for the coming year. Briefsummaries of current RHESSI science topics are available on the newlymigrated RHESSI "Nuggets" page: ~tohban/wiki/index.php/RHESSI_Science_Nuggets
As of November 16, 2008, Swift has observed 378 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), 128 of which have measured redshifts. In 2008 alone, Swift has detected 79 long-duration and 12 short-duration GRBs. The number of observed Target of Opportunities (ToOs) has seen a dramatic increase in 2008 (339) and Swift is currently receiving 2-3 ToO requests per day.
In many aspects, 2008 was a record-breaking year for Swift. In March, Swift has shattered the record for the most distant object that could be seen with the naked eye. With an intrinsic magnitude of -38, GRB 030819B was 2.5 million times more luminous than the most luminous supernova, about 1000 times more luminous than the most luminous QSO ever observed.
The Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) will celebrate its 13th launchanniversary on December 26, 2008. The spacecraft and detectorscontinue to perform reliably, and to produce important scientificresults. Based on guidance from NASA HQ in the wake of the 2008 NASASenior Review of Operating Missions, RXTE will be able to continue tooperate through September 2009. Planning is currently ongoing todetermine if RXTE will be able to extend operations beyond this date.
RXTE Cycle 13 (see )will be scheduled from December 26, 2008 to September 30, 2009 andincludes a pre-determined "Core Program," comprising observationsuniquely suited to RXTE, and a competed "Open-Time" program. New forCycle 13 is that all data will be made public immediately. That is,there will be no proprietary period for RXTE Cycle 13 data. Thedeadline for Open-Time proposals was October 30, 2008, and we receiveda total of 46 proposals requesting almost 30 Msec of observing time.This is a factor of 4-5 more than can be approved for the Open-Timeprogram, demonstrating a continued strong interest in RXTE data by theobserving community. The Cycle 13 proposal review will take place inearly December, and we expect to announce the approved program shortlythereafter. 2b1af7f3a8