The prophecy was not fulfilled in Micah's time, but a hundred years later when Judah was facing a similar crisis with the Neo-Babylonian Empire, Micah's prophecies were reworked and expanded to reflect the new situation. Still later, after Jerusalem did fall to the Neo-Babylonian Empire, the book was revised and expanded further to reflect the circumstances of the late exilic and post-exilic community.
Micah addresses the future of Judah/Israel after the Babylonian exile. Like Isaiah, the book has a vision of the punishment of Israel and creation of a "remnant", followed by world peace centered on Zion under the leadership of a new Davidic monarch; the people should do justice, turn to Yahweh, and await the end of their punishment. However, whereas Isaiah sees Jacob/Israel joining "the nations" under Yahweh's rule, Micah looks forward to Israel ruling over the nations. Insofar as Micah appears to draw on and rework parts of Isaiah, it seems designed at least partly to provide a counterpoint to that book.
As a contemporary of Isaiah and Hosea, Micah prophesied during the momentous years surrounding the tragic fall of Israel to the Assyrian Empire (722 BC), an event he also predicted (Micah 1:6). Micah stated in his introduction to the book that he prophesied during the reigns of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah in Judah, failing to mention the simultaneous string of dishonorable kings that closed out the northern kingdom of Israel.
Little is known about the prophet Micah beyond what can be learned from the book itself and from Jer 26:18. Micah was from the town of Moresheth (1:1), probably Moresheth Gath (1:14) in southern Judah. The prophecy attests to Micah's deep sensitivity to the social ills of his day, especially as they affected the small towns and villages of his homeland.
The background of the book is the same as that found in the earlier portions of Isaiah, though Micah does not exhibit the same knowledge of Jerusalem's political life as Isaiah does. Perhaps this is because he, like Amos, was from a village in Judah. The relevant Biblical texts covering this period (see Date above) are 2Ki 15:32 -- 20:21; 2Ch 27-32; Isa 7; 20; 36-39.
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Micah is the sixth of the Minor Prophets, the last 12 books of the Bible. When God had a message for the people, He gave his message through the prophets. These messages came in visions, oracles, dreams, parables, and the like.
Like all of Scripture, each book of the Bible has been given by God to help us learn how to live and love like Jesus. Each book of the Bible has something unique to teach us about God, about ourselves, and about the meaning of life.
The purpose of the book of Micah is to show that God remembers His covenant and will hold people accountable who break it. But He also forgives those who trust Him and will ultimate restore His people Israel to their land in a perfect and beautiful kingdom.
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Micah 1:1 gives the reader three pieces of information about the prophet. He came from Maresheth (NIV) which probably should be identified with Moresheth-gath. This village was located about 25 miles southwest of Jerusalem in the tribe of Judah. Micah, however, may have lived in Jerusalem during his ministry. He worked in the reigns of Jotham (750-732 B.C.), Ahaz (735-715 B.C.), and Hezekiah (715-686 B.C.) who were kings of Judah. The identification of these kings does not mean that he was active from 750-686, but that his ministry spanned parts of each reign. Jeremiah 26:17-18 refers to Micah as prophesying during the time of Hezekiah. Determining exact dates, however, for each of the prophecies contained in the book is difficult. Micah was a contemporary of Isaiah, Hosea, and possibly Amos.
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The book of Micah paints a picture of a just yet merciful God. Like a shepherd, God will one day gather and restore a faithful remnant to the land. He will rebuild Jerusalem, defeat evil forever, and send a messianic King to rule over the people and bless all the nations.
In this International Theological Commentary on the book of Micah, Mark S. Gignilliat begins by reflecting upon the nature of such commentary in relation to biblical interpretation, before situating Micah within current critical engagement with the book of the Twelve and focusing specifically on Micah's relation with Jonah and Nahum. The main body of the commentary is devoted to the interpretation and exegesis of Micah, engaging widely with theologians and biblical scholars. Gignilliat addresses literary issues involving the structure, grammar, and textual variants of given passages and - in keeping with the goals of the International Theological Commentary - provides analysis of Scripture's literal sense in relation to its theological subject matter. This volume offers scholars, clergy and lay readers alike a unique combination of critical exegesis and rigorous theological interpretation. 2b1af7f3a8